Yoga Sutras




AUM atha yoganushasanam

  1. OM. Now begins instruction in yoga. (1)

yogash chitta-vritti-nirodhah

  1. Yoga is the restraint of the modifications of the mind. (2)

tada drashtuh svarupe ‘vasthanam

  1. Then the Seer is established in his own essential nature. (3)

vritti-sarupyam itaratra

  1. Otherwise, there is self-identification with the mental modifications. (4)

vrittayah panchatayyah klishtaklishtah

  1. The mental modifications are fivefold and are painful or pleasurable. (5)


  1. These are correct cognition, misconception, fantasy, sleep and memory. (6)

pratyakshanumanagamah pramanani

  1. Correct cognition is based on direct perception, valid inference and verbal testimony. (7)

viparyayo mithya-jnanam atad-rupa-pratishtham

  1. Misconception is illusory knowledge based upon what is other than itself. (8)

shabda-jnananupati-vastu-shunyo vikalpah

  1. Fantasy, empty of substance, is engendered by words and concepts. (9)

abhava-pratyayalambana vrittir nidra

  1. Sleep is the modification engendered by the abeyance and absence of mental contents. (10)

anubhuta-vishayasanpramosha smritih

  1. Memory is the not letting go of an object or image of subjective experience. (11)

abhyasa-vairagyabhyam tan-nirodhah

  1. The restraint of these mental modifications comes from assiduous practice (abhyasa) and through dispassionate detachment (vairagya). (12)

tatra sthitau yatno ‘bhyasah

  1. Practice (abhyasa) is the continuous effort to abide in a steady state. (13)

sa tu dirgha-kala-nairantarya-satkarasevito dridha-bhumih

  1. This is indeed firmly grounded when it is persistently exercised for a long time, without interruption, and with earnest, reverential attention and devotion. (14)

drishtanushravika-vishaya-vitrishnasya vashikara-sanjna vairagyam

  1. Dispassionate detachment (vairagya) is the consciousness of perfect mastery in one who has ceased to crave for objects, seen or unseen. (15)

tat param purusha-khyater guna-vaitrishnayam

  1. That is the supreme dispassion when there is cessation of all craving for the attributes (gunas), owing to discernment of the Self (purusha). (16)

vitarka-vicharanandasmitanugamat sanprajnatah

  1. Cognitive contemplation is accompanied by reasoning, deliberation, bliss and the awareness of pure being (asmita). (17)

virama-pratyayabhyasa-purvah sanskara-shesho ‘nyah

  1. Another sort of contemplation comes through the previous practice, the cessation of all mental contents, residual potencies alone remaining. (18)

bhava-pratyayo videha-prakritilayanam

  1. It is caused by phenomenal existence in the case of the disembodied and of those absorbed into Nature (prakriti). (19)

shraddha-virya-smriti-samadhi-prajnapurvaka itaresham

  1. In the case of others, it is preceded by faith (shraddha), energy (virya), attentiveness (smriti), and the intellectual insight (prajna) needed for meditative absorption (samadhi). (20) (20)

tivra-sanveganam asannah

  1. It is close at hand for those with vehement intensity. (21)

mridu-madhyadhimatratvat tato ‘pi visheshah

  1. There is also a further differentiation — mild, moderate and intense. (22)

ishvara-pranidhanad va

  1. Or by devoted self-surrender to the Lord. (23)

klesha-karma-vipakashayair aparamrishtah purushavishesha ishvarah

  1. Ishvara is a distinct spirit (purusha), untouched by troubles, actions and their results, and latent impressions. (24)

tatra niratishayam sarvajna-bijam

  1. In Ishvara the seed of omniscience becomes infinite. (25)

sa purvesham api guruh kalenanavachchedat

  1. Ishvara is the preceptor even of the Ancients, for He is not fettered by time. (26)

tasya vachakah pranavah

  1. His designation is OM. (27)

tajjapas tad-artha-bhavanam

  1. Let there be constant chanting of OM and meditation on its meaning. (28)

tatah pratyak-chetanadhigamo ‘py antaraya-bhavash cha

  1. From that comes the turning inward of consciousness and the removal of hindrances. (29)

vyadhi-styana-sanshaya-pramadalasyavirati-bhranti- darshanalabdhabhumikatvanavasthitatvani chitta-vikshepas te ‘ntarayah

  1. The hindrances which cause mental distractions are disease, dullness, doubt, heedlessness, indolence, addiction to sense-objects, distorted perception, failure to find a footing and instability in any state. (30)

duhkha-daurmanasyangamejayatva-shvasa-prashrasa vikshepa-sahabhuvah

  1. These distractions are accompanied by sorrow, depression, bodily restlessness and spasmodic breathing. (31)

tat-pratishedhartham eka-tattvabhyasah

  1. To check these, there should be constant practice of one truth or principle (eka-tattva). (32)

maitri-karuna-muditopekshanam sukha-duhkha-punyapunya-vishayanam bhavanatash chitta-prasadanam

  1. The mind becomes purified through the practice of friendliness, compassion, gladness and indifference respectively towards happiness, sorrow, virtue and vice, (33)

prachchardana-vidharanabhyam va pranasya

  1. Or by expulsion and retention of breath (prana). (34)

vishayavati va pravrittir utpanna manasah sthiti-nibandhani

  1. The awakening of subtle sensory vision can hold the mind in a state of steadiness, (35)

vishoka va jyotishmati

  1. Or a state of serene luminosity, (36)

vita-raga-vishayam va chittam

  1. Or the mind is fixed on one free from craving, (37)

svapna-nidra-jnanalambanam va

  1. Or by dwelling on insights gained in dreams and dreamless sleep, (38)

yathabhimata-dhyanad va

  1. Or by meditating on that which is deeply desired. (39)

paramanu-parama-mahattvanto ‘sya vashikarah

  1. Thus, his mastery extends from the minutest atom to the ultimate infinitude. (40)

kshina-vritter abhijatasyeva maner grahitri-grahana-grahyeshu tatstha-tadanjanata samapattih

  1. When the modifications of the mind vanish, it becomes like a transparent crystal, attaining the power of transformation (samapatti), taking on the colour of what it rests on, whether it be the cognizer, the cognized or the act of cognition. (41)

tatra shabdartha-jnana-vikalpaih sankirna savitarka

  1. Whenever the construction of words and meanings is confused and uncertain, the mind wavers in a polemical and chaotic state (sankirna savitarka). (42)

smriti-parishuddhau svarupa-shunyevartha-matra-nirbhasa nirvitarka

  1. When the memory is purified, when the mind is void of its own form, it is luminous with true knowledge of its sole object, attaining to an unclouded state (nirvitarka). (43)

etayaiva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma-vishaya vyakhyata

  1. Also, by this process, the deliberative and non-deliberative states concerning subtle elements (sukshma-vishaya) are explained. (44)

sukshma-vishayatvam chalinga-paryavasanam

  1. And the subtle elements extend up to the noumenal, primordial and undifferentiated (alinga). (45)

ta eva sabijah samadhih

  1. They are only the basis of meditation with its seed. (46)

vichara-vaisharadye ‘dhyatma-prasadah

  1. On attaining the utmost purity of the non-deliberative state, there is the dawning of spiritual light, the gracious peace and luminosity of the supreme Self. (47)

ritambhara tatra prajna

  1. Therein is direct cognition (prajna), which carries and holds the unalloyed Truth. (48)

shrutanumana-prajnabhyam anya-vishaya vishesharthatvat

  1. Direct cognition is essentially different from testimony and inference, owing to its focus upon a specific object, Truth itself. (49)

taj-jah sanskaro ‘nya sanskara-pratibandhi

  1. The impress engendered therefrom supersedes all other latent impressions. (50)

tasyapi nirodhe sarva-nirodhan nirbijah samadhih

  1. On the stoppage of even that, all else being eliminated, there arises meditation without a seed (nirbijah samadhi). (51)

Yoga Sutras I




tapah-svadhyayeshvara-pranidhanani kriya-yogah

  1. Austerity, self-study and devoted self-surrender to the Lord constitute the practice of yoga. (52)

samadhi-bhavanarthah klesha-tanukaranarthash cha

  1. This is for the sake of shrinking afflictions and inducing meditative absorption (samadhi). (53)

avidyasmita-raga-dveshabhiniveshah kleshah

  1. The afflictions are ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion and the tenacious clinging to existence. (54)

avidya kshetram uttaresham prasupta-tanu-vichchinnodaranam

  1. Ignorance is the originating field for the others, whether they be dormant, tenuous, dispersed or activated. (55)

anityashuchi-duhkhanatmasu nitya-shuchi-sukhatmakhyatir avidya

  1. Ignorance is the belief that the impermanent, the impure, the painful, are the permanent, the pure, the pleasurable, that the non-Self is the Self. (56)

drig-darshana-shaktyor ekatmatevasmita

  1. Egoism (asmita) is the delusive or apparent identification of the potency of the Seer with the power of sight. (57)

sukhanushayl ragah

  1. Attachment accompanies and pursues pleasure. (58)

duhkhanushayi dveshah

  1. Aversion accompanies and dwells upon pain. (59)

svarasavahi vidusho ‘pi tatha rudho ‘bhiniveshah

  1. The tenacious clinging to existence, sustained by its own energy, is so rooted even in the learned. (60)

te pratiprasava-heyah sukshmah

  1. These subtle afflictions can be destroyed by inverse propagation (pratiprasava), involution or reabsorption into their causal origins. (61)

dhyana-heyas tad-vrittayah

  1. Their mental modifications are destroyed by deep meditation (dhyana). (62)

klesha-mulah karmashayo drishtadrishta-janma-vedaniyah

  1. The mental deposits of karma have their roots in the afflictions (kleshas) and their fruitage in experiences seen in this life, or in a future life now unseen. (63)

sati mule tad-vipako jaty-ayur-bhogah

  1. So long as the roots remain, there must be their fructification in the form of class, length of life and the experience of pleasures and pains. (64)

te hlada-paritapa-phalah punyapunya-hetutvat

  1. They have joy or sorrow as their fruit, by reason of virtue or vice. (65)

parinama-tapa-sanskara-duhkhair guna-vritti-virodhach cha duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah

  1. To the discerning, all is sorrowful owing to the miseries brought by change, anxiety and acquired impressions, and also because of the conflict between the propensities (gunas) of Nature and mental modifications (vritti). (66)

heyam duhkham anagatam

  1. The misery which has not yet come must be avoided. (67)

drashtri-drishyayoh sanyogo heya-hetuh

  1. The conjunction of the Seer and the seen is the cause of that which is to be avoided. (68)

prakasha-kriya-sthiti-shilam bhutendriyatmakam bhogapavargarthem drishyam

  1. Having the properties of luminosity, motion and inertia, the objective world of visible Nature consists of the elements and the sense-organs, all for the sake of experience and emancipation. (69)

visheshavishesha-lingamatralingani gunaparvani

  1. The states and stages of the propensities (gunas) are the particularized, the archetypal, the distinctly differentiated, and the signless, irresolvable, undifferentiated. (70)

drashta dristhimatrah shuddho ‘pi pratyayanupashyah

  1. The Seer is simply pure vision, and yet, though pure, he perceives ideas seemingly through the mind. (71)

tad-artha eva drishyasyatma

  1. The very essence of the visible is that it exists for the sake of the Seer, the Self alone. (72)

kritartham prati nashtam apy anashtam tad-anya-sadharanatvat

  1. Although it has vanished for him whose purpose is accomplished, it has not ceased to be for others, owing to its very commonality. (73)

sva-svami-shaktyoh svarupopalabdhi-hetah sanyogah

  1. The conjunction of the potencies of the Seer and the seen is the reason for the apprehension of his own form and his experience of the true nature of things seen. (74)

tasya hetur avidya

  1. Its effective cause is ignorance. (75)

tad-abhavat sanyogabhavo hanam tad drisheh kaivalyam

  1. In its absence, the conjunction disappears, and its avoidance is the real remedy; that is the isolation and liberation, the absolute freedom (kaivalya), of the Seer. (76)

viveka-khyatir aviplava hanopayah

  1. Unbroken discriminative cognition is the means of emancipation. (77)

tasya saptadha pranta-bhumih prajna

  1. His awakening of perfect cognition is sevenfold, attained in successive stages. (78)

yoganganushthanad ashuddhikshaye jnanadiptir a viveka-khyateh

  1. Through the practice of the component parts of yoga, as impurity is gradually destroyed, the light of wisdom shines forth, leading to discriminative cognition of Reality. (79)

yama-niyamasana-pranayama-pratyahara-dharana-dhyana-samadhyayo ‘shtavangani

  1. Restraint (yama), binding observance (niyama), posture (asana), regulation of breath (pranayama), abstraction and sense-withdrawal (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), contemplation (dhyana) and perfect meditative absorption (samadhi) are the eight limbs of yoga. (80)

tatra ahimsa-satyasteya-brahmacharyaparigraha yamah

  1. Of these, non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), non-stealing (asteya), continence (brahmacharya) and non-possessiveness (aparigraha) are the five forms of restraint (yamas). (81)

ete jati-desha-kala-samayanavachchimah sarvabhauma mahavratam

  1. These are not conditioned or qualified by class or country, time or circumstance, and apply to all spheres and stages, thus constituting the Great Vow. (82)

shaucha-santosha-tapah-svadhyayeshvara-pranidhanani niyamah

  1. Purity, contentment, austerity, self-study and devoted self-surrender to the Lord are the five observances (niyamas). (83)

vitarka badhane pratipaksha bhavanam

  1. When the mind is oppressed by perverse thoughts, it must summon and sustain their opposites. (84)

vitarka himsadayah krita-karitanumodita lobha-krodha-moha-purvaka mridu-madhyadhimatra duhkhajnananantaphala iti pratipaksha-bhavanam

  1. Perverse thoughts of a violent and destructive nature, whether enacted, abetted or endorsed, whether induced by avarice, anger or delusion, whether mild, moderately present or intensely indulged, result in endless misery and folly; consequently, their opposites must be nurtured and nourished. (85)

ahimsa-pratishthayam tat-sanniddhau vairatyagah

  1. When one is firmly grounded in non-violence (ahimsa), all hostility is given up in one’s presence. (86)

satya-pratishthayam kriya-phalashrayatvam

  1. When one is firmly grounded in truth (satya), all acts gestated bear fruit dependably. (87)

asteya-pratishthayam sarva-ratnopasthanam

  1. When one is firmly grounded in non-stealing (asteya), all sorts of precious jewels present themselves. (88)

brahmacharya-pratishthayam virya-labhah

  1. When one is firmly grounded in celibacy in consciousness and conduct (brahmacharya), one gains vigour, vitality and strength. (89)

aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathanta-sanbodhah

  1. When one is established in non-possessiveness (aparigraha), one gains luminous insight in relation to the process and purposes, the meaning and significance, of the succession of births. (90)

shauchat svanga-jugupsa parair asansargah

  1. Through internal purity and external purification, one gains bodily protection and freedom from pollution in contacts with others. (91)

sattvashuddhi-saumanasyaikagryendriyajayatma-darshana-yogyatvani cha

  1. Through the cleansing of consciousness and purity of motivation, one gains mental serenity, one-pointedness, control of the sense-organs, as well as fitness for soul-vision and direct apprehension of the Self. (92)

santoshad anuttamah sukha-labhah

  1. Through joyous contentment, one gains supreme happiness. (93)

kayendriya-siddhir ashuddhi-kshayat tapasah

  1. Through the elimination of pollution, the practice of penance (tapas) brings about the perfection of the body and the sense-organs. (94)

svadhyayad ishta-devata-sanprayogah

  1. Through self-study comes communion with the chosen deity. (95)

samadhi-siddhir ishvara-pranidhanat

  1. Through persevering devotion to the Lord comes perfection in meditative absorption (samadhi). (96)

sthira-sukham asanam

  1. The posture must be firm and pleasant. (97)


  1. This is gained by release of tension and serene contemplation upon the boundless infinite. (98)

tato dvandvanabhighatah

  1. Thus arises freedom from assault by the pairs of opposites. (99)

tasmin sati shvasa-prashvasayor gativichchedah pranayamah

  1. When this is attained, there comes pranayama, the regulation of breath, the restraint of inhalation and exhalation. (100)

bahyabhyantara-stambha-vrittir deshakala-sankhyabhih paridrishto dirghasukshmah

  1. These modifications are external, internal or wholly suspended; they are regulated according to space, time or number, whether protracted or attenuated. (101)

bahyabhyantara-vishayakshepi chaturthah

  1. The fourth modification goes beyond the external-internal range. (102)

tatah kshiyate prakashavaranam

  1. Thus is worn away the veil which obscures the light. (103)

dharanasu cha yogyata manasah

  1. And thus the mind gains fitness for concentration. (104)

sva-vishayasanprayoge chitta-svarupanukara ivendriyanam pratyaharah

  1. Pratyahara, abstraction or dissociation, is the disjoining of the sense-organs from their respective objects, assuming, as it were, the nature of the mind itself. (105)

tatah parama vashyatendriyanam

  1. Thence comes supreme control of the senses. (106)

Yoga Sutras II




desha-bandhash chittasya dharana

  1. Dharana, concentration, is the fixing or focussing of consciousness on a particular point or place. (107)

tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam

  1. Dhyana, meditation, is the continuous, uninterrupted flow of consciousness towards the chosen object. (108)

tad evarthamatra-nirbhasam svarupa-shunyam iva samadhih

  1. Samadhi, meditative absorption or ecstasy, arises when the object of meditation shines forth alone, as if emptied of the form of the agent. (109)

trayam ekatra sanyamah

  1. The three together constitute sanyama, constraint. (110)

taj-jayat prajnalokah

  1. Through mastery of it comes the light of cognitive insight (prajna). (111)

tasya bhumishu viniyogah

  1. Its application is by stages. (112)

trayam antarangam purvebhyah

  1. The three together are more interior than the preceding. (113)

tad api bahirangam nirbijasya

  1. Even these are exterior to seedless samadhi, or soul vision. (114)

vyutthana-nirodha-sanskarayor abhibhava-pradhurbhavan nirodha-kshana-chittanvayo nirodha-parinamah

  1. Nirodhaparinama is that mental transformation through restraint wherein the consciousness becomes permeated by that condition which intervenes momentarily between fading impressions and emerging potencies. (115)

tasya prashanta-vahita sanskarat

  1. Its flow becomes serene and steady through habituation. (l16)

sarvarthataikagratayoh kshayodayau chittasya samadhi-parinamah

  1. Samadhiparinama, meditative transformation, is the dwindling of distractions and the emergence of unitary consciousness or one-pointedness (ekagrata). (117)

tatah punah shantoditau tulya-pratyayau chittasyaikagrata-parinamah

  1. Thence again comes ekagrataparinama, the development of one-pointedness, wherein the two states of consciousness, the quiescent or subsided and the active or uprisen, are exactly similar and balanced. (118)

etena bhutendriyeshu dharma-lakshanavastha-parinama vyakhyatah

  1. Thus are explained the transformations of intrinsic properties, secondary qualities and states of being in the objective elements and instrumental sense-organs. (119)

shantoditavyapadeshya-dharmanupati dharmi

  1. The substratum is that which is common to the properties, whether quiescent, active or unmanifest. (120)

kramanyatvam parinamanyatve hetuh

  1. The variation in sequence or succession is the cause of the difference and distinctness in transformation. (121)

parinama-traya-sanyamad atitanagata-jnanam

  1. Through sanyama, perfectly concentrated meditative constraint, comes knowledge of past and future. (122)

shabdartha-pratyayanam itaretaradhyasat sankaras tat-pravibhaga-sanyamat sarva-bhuta-ruta-jnanam

  1. The sound, the meaning and the idea called up by a word are confounded owing to their indistinct superimposition. Through sanyama on their separation and resolution there comes a cognitive comprehension of the sounds uttered by all sentient beings. (123)

sanskara-sakshatkaranat purva-jatijnanam

  1. By bringing latent impressions into consciousness there comes the knowledge of former births. (124)

pratyayasya para-chitta-jnanam

  1. Through concentrated perception of mental images comes the knowledge of other minds. (125)

na cha tat salambanam tasyavishayi-bhutatvat

  1. The mental supports are not perceived, for that is not the object of observation. (126)

kaya-rupa-sanyamat tad-grahya-shakti-stambhe chakshuh-prakashasanprayoge ‘ntardhanam

  1. Through sanyama on the form and colour of the body, by suspending its power of perceptibility and thereby disconnecting the light from the body and the sight of others, there comes the power to make the body invisible. (127)

etena sthabdady antardhanam uktam

  1. Thus can also be explained the power of concealment of sound, touch, taste and smell. (128)

sopakramam nirupakramam cha karma tat-sanyamad aparanta-jnanam arishtebhyo va

  1. Through sanyama on karma, which is either fast or slow in fruition, active or dormant, one gains knowledge of the time of death and also of omens and portents. (129)

maitry-adishu balani

  1. Through sanyama on kindliness (maitri) and similar graces one gains mental, moral and spiritual strength. (130)

baleshu hasti-baladini

  1. Through sanyama on various powers one gains the strength of an elephant. (131)

pravritty-aloka-nyasat sukshma-vyavahita-viprakrishta-jnanam

  1. Through sanyama on the shining, effulgent light one gains knowledge of the small and subtle, the hidden and veiled, and the remote. (132)

bhavana-jnanam surye sanyamat

  1. Through sanyama on the sun there comes knowledge of the solar system, cosmic evolution and involution. (133)

chandre tara-vyuha-jnanam

  1. Through sanyama on the moon there comes knowledge concerning the arrangement of stars. (134)

dhruve tad-gati-jnanam

  1. Through sanyama on the pole-star comes knowledge of the relative motions and positions of the stars. (135)

nabhi-chakre kaya-vyuha-jnanam

  1. Through sanyama on the solar plexus comes knowledge of the structure and organization of the body. (136)

kantha-kupe kshut-pipasa-nivrittih

  1. Through sanyama on the pit of the throat there comes cessation of hunger and thirst. (137)

kurma-nadyam sthairyam

  1. Through sanyama on the nerve-centre called the ‘tortoise’ duct there comes steadiness. (138)

murdha-jyotishi siddha-darshanam

  1. Through sanyama on the light in the head comes the vision of perfected beings. (139)

pratibhad va sarvam

  1. Through sanyama on the effulgent light of intuition comes all knowledge. (140)

hridaye chitta-sanvit

  1. Through sanyama on the heart comes knowledge of cosmic intellection. (141)

sattva-purushayor atyantasankirnayoh pratyayavishesho bhogah pararthat svartha-sanyamat purusha-jnanam

  1. Indulgence in experience is the result of the inability to distinguish between the Self (purusha) and the principle of understanding (sattva), though they are utterly distinct. Self-knowledge results from sanyama on the Self-existent, which is apart from the non-self. (142)

tatah pratibha-shravana-vedanadarshasvada-vartta jayante

  1. Thence are produced intuitional, extra-sensory hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell. (143)

te samadhav upasarga vkyutthane siddhayah

  1. They are obstacles to meditative absorption (samadhi) but are powerful aids when the mind is turned outwards. (144)

bandha-karana-shaithilyat prachara-sanvedanach cha chittasya para-shariraveshah

  1. The mind can enter another’s body through the suspension of the causes of bondage and through knowledge of the mental channels. (145)

udana-jayaj jala-panka-kantakadishvasanga utkrantisth cha

  1. Through mastery over the vital energy called udana comes imperviousness to water and mud, thorn and the rest, levitation and victory over death. (146)

samana-jayaj jvalanam

  1. Through mastery over the vital energy called samana comes blazing radiance. (147)

shrotrakashayoh sanbandha-sanyamad divyam shrotram

  1. Through sanyama on the connection between the ear and the ether (akasha) comes divine hearing. (148)

kayakashayoh sanbandha-sanyamat laghu-tula-samapattesth chakashagamanam

  1. Through sanyama on the connection between the body and the ether (akasha) comes lightness like cotton and the attainment of levitation in space. (149)

bahir akalpita vrittir maha-videha tatah prakashavarana-kshayah

  1. Mahavideha is the power of invoking the incorporeal state of consciousness which is beyond the intellect and therefore inconceivable. Thus is destroyed the obscuring veil over the light. (150)

sthula-svarupa-sukshmanvayarthavattva-sanyamad bhuta-jayah

  1. Through sanyama on gross matter, its essential form, its subtle qualities, its concomitant compounds and molecules and their functions, comes mastery over the elements. (151)

tato ‘nimadi-pradurbhavah kaya-sanpat tad-dharmanabhighatash cha

  1. Thence comes the manifestation of the powers of minuteness and the rest, as well as the perfection of the body and the realization of the indestructibility of the elements. (152)

rupa-lavanya-bala-vajra-sanhananatvani kaya-sanpat

  1. Perfection of the body consists in beauty, grace, strength and adamantine hardness. (153)

grahana-svarupasmitanvayarthavattva-sanyamad indriya-jayah

  1. Mastery over the sense-organs comes through sanyama on their power of apprehension, their real nature, egoism, concomitance and specific functions. (154)

tato manojavitam vikarana-bhavah pradhana-jayash cha

  1. Thence comes instantaneous cognition, independent of instruments, and the complete mastery of pradhana, the chief common principle throughout Nature. (155)

sattva-purushanyata-khyati-matrasya sarvabhavadhishthatritvam sarvajnatritvam cha

  1. Only through the knowledge of the distinction between the principle of understanding (sattva) and the Self (purusha) comes supremacy over all states of existence and omniscience. (156)

tad-vairagyad api dosha-bija-kshaye kaivalyam

  1. Through non-attachment even to that comes the destruction of the seeds of bondage and the state of emancipation (kaivalya). (157)

sthany-upanimantrane sangha-smayakaranam punar anishta-prasangat

  1. There must be avoidance of attachment or amazement on encountering celestial beings, owing to the possible recurrence of the undesirable. (158)

kshana-tat-kramayoh sanyamad vivekajam jnanam

  1. Through sanyama on indivisible moments and their order of succession comes discriminative knowledge. (159)

jati-lakshana-deshair anyatanavachchedat tulyayos tatah pratipattih

  1. Therefrom comes the discernment of two similar events and of things whose distinctness cannot be measured or distinguished by class, property or position. (160)

tarakam sarva-vishayam sarvatha-vishayam akramam cheti vivekajam jnanam

  1. Transcendental discriminative knowledge is that which simultaneously encompasses all objects and all possible processes, reaching beyond all endings. (161)

sattva-purushayoh shuddhi-samye kaivalyam

  1. Emancipation (kaivalya) is attained when there is equalization of purity between the principle of understanding (sattva) and the Self (purusha). (162)

Yoga Sutras III




janmaushadhi-mantra-tapah-samadhijah siddhayah

  1. Spiritual powers (siddhis) are inborn and activated by herbs, incantations, austerities or meditative absorption (samadhi). (163)

jaty-antara-parinamah prakrity-apurat

  1. Transformation from one species or state of existence into another is made possible through the overflow of natural tendencies and forces. (164)

nimittam aprayojakam prakritinam varanabhedas tu tatah kshetrikavat

  1. The instrumental cause does not produce the essential modification or movement of natural tendencies; it merely pierces through obstructions, just like the farmer in the field. (165)

nirmana-chittany asmita-matrat

  1. Many minds are produced solely by the power of egoism or selfhood. (166)

pravritti-bhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekesham

  1. The one mind is directing many minds in their multiple activities. (167)

tatra dhyanajam anashayam

  1. Of these, the mind born of meditation is devoid of mental deposits or latent impressions. (168)

karmashuklakrishnam yoginas trividham itaresham

  1. The actions of yogins are neither white nor black, while those of others are of three kinds. (169)

tatas tad-vipakanugunanam evabhivyaktir vasananam

  1. From these, only those tendencies are manifested for which the conditions are favourable for fruition. (170)

jati-desha-kala-vyavahitanam apy anantaryam smriti-sanskarayor ekarupatvat

  1. Although separated by class, locality and time, there is an immediate succession of memories and tendencies which are identical in form. (171)

tasam anaditvam chashisho nityatvat

  1. And there is no temporal beginning for those tendencies, owing to the constant persistence of desire or the will to live. (172)

hetu-phalashrayalambanaih sangrihitatvad esham abhave tad-abhavah

  1. As they are bound together by cause and effect, substratum and support, they cease to exist when these disappear. (173)

atitanagatam svarupato ‘sty adhva-bhedad dharmanam

  1. The past and the future subsist in their true nature, while the variation in properties is owing to differences of phase and direction. (174)

te vyakta-sukshmah gunatmanah

  1. They, whether manifest or unmanifest, are of the nature of gunasor potencies. (175)

parinamaikatvad vastu-tattvam

  1. The essential nature of the object consists in the identity and uniqueness of the transformation. (176)

vastu-samye chitta-bhedat tayor vibhaktah panthah

  1. Though the object is the same, the cognition is different, owing to the diversity and distinctness of states of being. (177)

na chaika-chitta-tantram vastu tad-apramanakam tada kim syat

  1. Nor is an object dependent on one mind. What would become of it when not cognized by that mind? (178)

tad-uparagapekshitvach chittasya vastu jnatajnatam

  1. An object is known or not known according as the mind is coloured and attracted by it or not. (179)

sada jnatasth chitta-vrittayas tat-prabhoh purushasyaparinamitvat

  1. The modifications of the mind are always known to its master, owing to the immutability of the Self (purusha). (180)

na tat svabhasam drishyatvat

  1. Nor is the mind self-luminous, since it can be seen as an object. (181)

eka-samaye chobhayanavadharanam

  1. Nor can it be both cognizer and cognized at the same time. (182)

chittantara-drishye buddhi-buddher atiprasangah smriti-sanskarah cha

  1. If the mind were to be seen by another within, there would be an endless series of perceiving minds and a commingling of memories. (183)

chiter apratisankramayas tad-akarapattau svabuddhi-sanvedanam

  1. Knowledge of its own nature through self-cognition comes when consciousness assumes that form in which it does not move from place to place. (184)

drashtri-drishyoparaktam chittam sarvartham

  1. Consciousness, coloured by the Seer and the seen, is all-comprehensive. (185)

tad asankhyeya-vasanabhish chitram api parartham sanhatya-karitvat

  1. Though variegated by countless impressions, the mind exists for another (purusha), for it acts in association. (186)

vishesha-darshina atma-bhava-bhavana-vinivrittih

  1. For the discerning Seer there is complete cessation of identification of mental states with the consciousness of the Self (atman). (187)

tada hi viveka-nimnam kaivalya-pragbharam chittam

  1. Verily, then, the mind becomes serenely bent towards discrimination and is borne onwards towards total emancipation (kaivalya). (188)

tach-chidreshu pratyayantarani sanskarebhyah

  1. During intervals other thoughts will arise through the force of former impressions. (189)

hanam esham kleshavad uktam

  1. Their removal is like that of the afflictions (kleshas) already mentioned. (190)

prasankhyane ‘py akusidasya sarvatha viveka-khyater dharma-meghah samadhih

  1. From constant and continuous discriminative knowledge, without any selfish attachment even towards the highest illumination, comes the meditative absorption (samadhi) known as the rain-cloud of righteousness (dharma-megha). (19l)

tatah klesha-karma-nivrittih

  1. Then comes the cessation of afflictions (kleshas) and works (karma). (192)

tada sarvavarana-malapetasya jnanasyanantyaj jneyam alpam

  1. Then all veils and stains being removed, his knowledge becoming infinite, little remains to be known. (193)

tatah kritarthanam parinama-krama-samaptir gunanam

  1. Then the three gunas having fulfilled their purpose, the process of transformation comes to an end. (194)

kshana-pratiyogi parinamaparanta-nirgrahyah kramah

  1. Succession is the uninterrupted sequence of moments and is fully apprehended at the final stage. (195)

purushartha-shunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah kaivalyam svarupa-pratishtha va chiti-shakter iti

  1. Emancipation (kaivalya) comes when the gunas, becoming devoid of any motive for action for the Self (purusha), are reabsorbed into latency. In this state the Self (purusha) is established in its own nature, which is the energy of pure consciousness or cosmic ideation. (196)

kaivalya nirvanayoh purnaikyam

  1. There is complete identity of emancipation (kaivalya) and supreme peace (nirvana). (197)

kaivalyam dharman dharminah purushasya

  1. Emancipation (kaivalya) is the state which subsists in the Self (purusha). (198)

kaivalye akhile vishve purusha-darshanam purushe chakhila vishva-darshanam

  1. In the state of emancipation there is the vision of the Self in the entire cosmos and of the cosmos in the Self. (199)

sagunam satchidanandam nirgunam chatatah param tatvam iti

  1. Absolute Existence, Consciousness and Bliss constitute the plenitude of the Self, and beyond these is the Attributeless Self. (200)

Yoga Sutras IV

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